Summary 1 In the Han dynasty (−202 to +220) Chinese medicine came to be based on a study of the processes of nature and how they are manifested in human beings. 2 Qi is the insubstantial matter that underlies everything that is manifest. 3 For the early Daoists, little distinction was made between the qi of Heaven and Earth and of Humanity. 4 Humanity forms a bridge between Heaven and Earth. 5 Humanity alone possesses the ‘Three Treasures’. Animals possess jing and qi , but only humans have the gift of Heaven, shen.